From Rotation to Bullpen & Back Again…Why?

The foremost question plaguing the Brian Cashman era in New York remains, “Are the Yankees any good at developing pitchers?” Any real answer to that question means considering not only players on the current roster, but those who have moved on to greener pastures (or grayer ones), as well as current prospects like Banuelos and Betances, who could quickly make us forget mistakes of the past. But, the fact is, the question might never even get asked if not for the tortured career arcs of Joba Chamberlain and Phil Hughes, the last pair of premier prospects to emerge from the Yankee farm system. Both reached the big leagues in their early twenties, but now, though still a rather tender age, after half a decade of injury and inconsistency, both are facing uncertain futures. Part of what makes their development so frustrating is that, superficially at least, it seems as though the organization either never had a plan, or couldn’t stick to it, as Chamberlain and Hughes bounced back and forth between the bullpen and the starting rotation, never given time to fully adapt and adjust to the challenges of either role.

In reference to similar indecisiveness by the Red Sox (most recently concerning Daniel Bard, but also with Justin Masterson and Jonathan Papelbon in recent memory), Michael Schur postulates that “John Smoltz kind of screwed everything up” by making it easier to believe “that pitchers can just kind of flip back and forth.” But, of course, veteran pitchers like Smoltz have been changing roles with considerable success throughout the history of the game. Dennis Eckersley went one way. Derek Lowe went the other. Brett Myers will, this coming season, be asked to change roles for the fifth time in the last six seasons. Tim Wakefield did it that many times in a single year. What distinguishes Bard, Chamberlain, Hughes, et al is the multiple conversions happening so early in their careers. The 23-year-old pitcher is already facing the challenge of adapting to a longer season, heavier workload, and tougher competition, why should we believe that he can also handle the changes in approach, routine, and stress entailed in moving from starter to reliever, or vice versa?

Tangotiger asked last week, “Is there a Red Sox/Yankees variable in bullpen-to-starter moves?” Specifically, he speculated, “Can we blame the media scrutiny?” I find this to be an interesting question, but before we could identify that variable we’d need to prove either that a.) there is a “control group” of other organizations who don’t exist in such a fishbowl, but have recognizably different (and likely better) track records in making the bullpen-to-starter transition work, or b.) other organizations don’t even bother with bouncing their young starters between such roles. The latter is clearly not the case. The strategy of getting a 20-year-old’s feet wet in the bullpen is one which is increasingly common. I’m not convinced, however, that the results justify this strategy. It might surprise Yankees fans to know that of the 31 pitchers from the last decade who have made at least 35 starts and 35 relief appearances before the age of 27, Chamberlain and Hughes rank 3rd and 4th respectively in rWAR (despite their thoroughly mediocre totals).

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I blame Johan Santana. Though Santana was always groomed as a starter and although he threw as many as 160 innings in his final year in the minors, the Twins bounced him back and forth between relieving and starting for each of his first four seasons in the majors. When he finally entered the rotation full-time at the age of 24, he rewarded the Twins “strategy” by giving them four seasons during which he averaged 228 IP, 18 W, 2.89 ERA, 0.99 WHIP, 9.7 K/9, and 6.3 rWAR. Over that stretch he won two Cy Youngs, never finished lower than fifth in the voting, and made three excellent postseason starts (although the Twins never made it out of the first round).

Following Santana, the Twins made this “variable-role development” a common organizational model for introducing top prospects. Carlos Silva spent two full seasons in the ‘pen before graduating to the rotation at the age of 24. Francisco Liriano spent his first full season, 2006, being shuffled back and forth on much the same schedule as Santana (and spent the following season rehabbing from Tommy John surgery). Former first-rounder, Glen Perkins, started his Twins career in the bullpen and has since been moved back to it. Boof Bonser, Kevin Slowey, Brian Duensing, and the supposed fruit of the Santana trade, Anthony Swarzak, have all done time in both the Minnesota ‘pen and the Twins rotation. While the jury may still be out on several of them, it’s safe to say that, much like the Yankees, the Twins are now far more renowned for grooming relievers than starters.

The second greatest bullpen-to-starter success story of the last decade is that of Adam Wainwright. Wainwright was promoted as a reliever in 2006, at the age of 24. He was excellent in relief, famously closing out the Cardinals World Series win over the Tigers, and was converted to a starter the following spring. He looked like a perennial Cy Young candidate until he missed all of 2011.

After Santana and Wainwright, the evidence justifying variable-role development gets really thin. Zack Greinke spent much of 2007 in the bullpen, when he was still in his early 20s, but Kansas City only resorted to making him a reliever as a means of working him back from the emotional issues that cost him all of 2006. Last year, Alexi Ogando (who reached the majors somewhat late, at age 26) made the All-Star team for Texas in his first season as a starter. However, he fell apart after the break (5.11 ERA in last 13 games) and appears to be headed back to the bullpen in 2012.

As you can see, there aren’t that many success stories, but that doesn’t mean teams have given up on the strategy. This season could be critical to its long-term viability. The Red Sox will likely begin the year with either Bard or Alfredo Aceves in the rotation. Both were starters in the minors and have not been since. Cory Luebke in San Diego and Hector Noesi in Seattle, both having opened their careers as relievers, will move to being full-time starters.  The Rangers rotation will feature three players under the age of 27 – Neftali Feliz, Derek Holland, and Matt Harrison – who spent substantial portions of their early careers in the bullpen. Hughes, Masterson, Brandon McCarthy, and Brandon Morrow head a group of variable-role graduates with the potential to shrug off previous inadequacies now that they’ve reached their late twenties. Will there be another Santana or Wainwright among this group? Maybe, maybe not. But so long as they aren’t all Yusmeiro Petit‘s, it will probably be considered a successful year for variable-role development.

About Matt Seybold

Matt teaches at The University of Alabama. Roll Tide. He specializes in American Literature and Rhetorical Economics. Fate chose for him the peculiar perdition of rooting for the Chicago Cubs and the Los Angeles Clippers.

5 thoughts on “From Rotation to Bullpen & Back Again…Why?

  1. Fantastic post. You have given us a lot to think about and that's the best thing a post can do.

  2. Very, very informative post, good work,

    I have always been of the opinion that it shouldn't matter with the shuffling back and forth. The twins and Santana in particular were always a strong point in my argument, but after listening to Keith Law on baseball today talk about it a bit, it seems as though the role itself isn't the problem but the transition between using more finesse as a starting pitcher and airing it out for 25 pitches as a reliever.

    It would seem probable that throwing a slider with just a liiiiitle bit extra torque could damage your arm little by little when you start giving max effort. Also, this may be subjective because I don't have the data in front of me, but it in my memory it seems there are very few relievers that rely on a curveball, and sliders are known to be harder on elbows than curves… Are max effort sliders an indicator for arm trouble or short careers?!

  3. CJ Wilson is another successful example.

    Also, Liriano didn't really get moved back and forth, he just moved once from bullpen to starter.

    As for the Yankees/Red Sox correlation, it's all about the need to win in the present, filling whatever perceived hole you have by any means necessary.

    • Wilson's situation is quite different, considering he was 29 years old when he became a starter and his years in the bullpen clearly weren't part of any development plan. As for Liriano, the Twins expressed their intention to develop him along the same lines as Santana, although his injury clearly got in the way of their plans.

      While I would agree that "by any means necessary" has been the modus operandi for both New York and Boston the past decade, I think we have to ask whether it should remain so. Some "win now" decisions have cost the teams wins both now and in the future. Papelbon is, thusfar, the only pitcher from among the group of variable-role graduates who's been consistently successful at the major league level. If the Yankees are sincere in their intention to keep their luxury tax rate below 50%, they are going to have to start getting better returns from their young pitchers.

      • I can't speak for the Twins' intention with Liriano, I was only correcting your assertion that there was an oscillation of roles.

        I'm not certain how you are differentiating between guys who move between relieving and starting and those who are part of a "variable-role development" plan. Because several of the names you list in the last paragraph are definitely not part of some long-term organizational starter-to-reliever-to-starter plan (Bard, Aceves, Feliz are obvious ones).